ILS Core Concepts – Minerals and Rocks

by | Jul 12, 2023 | Uncategorized


Core ConceptsSuggested Activity
3.3a. All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms are far too small to see with a light microscope. 
3.3e. The atoms of any one element are different from the atoms of other elements. 
3.3 f. There are more than 100 elements. Elements combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that account for all living and nonliving substances. Few elements are found in their pure form. 
3.3g. The periodic table is one useful model for classifying elements. The periodic table can be used to predict properties of elements (metals, nonmetals, noble gases.)Using the periodic table, identify an element as a metal, nonmetal, or noble gas.
3.3c. Atoms may join together in well-defined molecules or may be arranged in regular geometric patterns. 
3.2b. Mixtures are physical combinations of materials and can be separated by physical means. 
3.2d. Substances are often placed in categories if they react in similar ways. Examples include metals, nonmetals, and noble gases. 
3.1a. Substances have characteristic properties. Some of these properties include phase at room temperature, density, hardness, color, odor, heat and electrical conductivity, solubility, and boiling and freezing points.Determine the identify of an unknown element, using physical and chemical properties.
3.1g. Characteristic properties can be used to identify different materials and separate a mixture of substances into its components. For example, iron filings can be removed from a mixture by means of a magnet. An insoluble substance can be separated from a soluble substance by such processes as filtration, settling, and evaporation.Using appropriate resources, separate the parts of a mixture.
3.3b. Atoms and molecules are perpetually in motion. The greater the temperature, the greater the motion. 
3.1c. The motion of particles helps to explain the phases (states) of matter, as well as changes from one phase to another. The phase in which matter exists depends on their attractive forces among its particles. 
3.1f  A solid has definite shape and volume.  Particles resist a change in position. 
3.1e A liquid has definite volume, but takes the shape of a container. 
3.1d. Gases have neither a determined shape nor a definite volume. Gases assume the shape and volume of a closed container.Determine the density of liquids, and regular- and irregular-shaped objects
3.1h. Density can be described as the amount of matter that is in a given amount of space. If two objects have equal volume, but one has more mass, the one with more mass is denser.Determine the volume of a regular- and an irregular-shaped solid, using water displacement.
3.1i. Buoyancy is determined by comparative densities. 
3.1b. Solubility can be affected by temperature, surface area, stirring, and pressure. 
3.2a. During a physical change a substance keeps its chemical composition and properties. Examples of physical changes include freezing, melting, condensation, boiling, evaporation, tearing, and crushing. 
3.3d. Interactions among atoms and/or molecules result in chemical reactions. 
3.2c. During a chemical change, substances react in characteristic ways to form new substances with different physical and chemical properties. Examples of chemical changes include burning of wood, cooking of an egg, rusting of iron, and souring of milk. 
3.2e. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that during an ordinary chemical reaction matter cannot be created or destroyed. In chemical reactions, the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products.Using identification tests and a flow chart, identify mineral samples.
2.1e. Rocks are composed of minerals. Only a fewrock-forming minerals make up most of the rocks of Earth. Minerals are identified on the basis of physical properties such as streak, hardness, andreaction to acid.Using identification tests and a flow chart, identify rock samples.
2.2g. Rocks are classified according to their method of formation. The three classes of rocks aresedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. Most rocks show characteristics that give clues to their formation conditions.Use a diagram of the rock cycle to determine the geological processes that led to the formation of a specific rock type.
2.2h  The rock cycle model shows how types of rock or rock material may be transformed from one rock type to another.Study models of the rock cycle.