PSES Core Concepts – Oceanography

by | Jul 14, 2023 | Uncategorized

1.2e.  Earth’s early atmosphere formed as a result of the outgassing of water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and lesser amounts of other gases from its interior.

1.2f.  Earth’s oceans formed as a result of precipitation over millions of years.  The presence of an early ocean is indicated by sedimentary rocks of marine origin, dating back about four billion years.

1.1i.  Approximately 70% of Earth’s surface is covered by a relatively thin layer of water, which responds to the gravitational attractive of the Moon and the Sun with a daily cycle of high and low tides.

1.1a.  Regular and predictable motion of Earth explains such phenomena as tides.

2.1b.  The transfer of heat energy within the atmosphere and the hydrosphere results in the formation of regions of different densities.  These density differences result in motion.

2.2b.  The transfer of heat energy within the hydrosphere occurs as a result of radiation, conduction, and convection. Heating of Earth drives convection within the oceans, producing ocean currents.

2.1i.  Seasonal changes can be explained using concepts of density and heat energy. These changes include shifting of global temperature zones, the shifting of planetary wind and ocean patterns, the occurrence of monsoons, hurricanes, flooding, and other severe weather.

2.1n.  Many of Earth’s surface features such as mid-ocean ridges/rifts, trenches/subduction zones, hot spots, and magnetic and age patterns in bedrock are a consequence of forces associated with plate motion and interaction.

2.1o.  Plate motions have resulted in global changes in geography, climate, and patterns of organic evolution.

2.1w.  Sediments of inorganic and organic origin often accumulate in depositional environments.  Sedimentary rocks form when sediments are compacted and/or cemented after burial or as a result of chemical precipitation from seawater.

2.1u.  Wave Action: Erosion and deposition cause changes in shoreline features, including beaches, sandbars, and barrier islands. Wave action rounds sediments as a result of abrasion. Waves approaching a shoreline move parallel to the shore within the zone of breaking waves.

2.1u. Wind: Erosion of sediments by wind is most common in arid climates and along shorelines.  Wind generated features include dunes.

2.2c. A location’s climate is influenced by proximity to large bodies of water, ocean currents, and prevailing winds.

2.2d.  Temperature and precipitation patterns are altered by natural events such as El Nino.